Drones sans hélices : mécanisme, avantages et inconvénients (mise à jour 2023)
When you think of a drone, you likely think of a quadcopter with four propellers. But there are actually several types de drones, and not all of them need propellers to fly. I’ve done some research to find out which types of drones don’t need propellers and how they stay in the air.
Propellers are the ultimate iconic detail of drones in our minds, but they’re not the only way that a drone can stay airborne. In fact, some of the most cutting-edge drones in development don’t use propellers at all. These alternative designs include flapping wings, jet engines, and even balloons.
One type of drone that doesn’t need propellers is a flapping-wing drone. These drones use a wingspan that flaps up and down to create lift, similar to how a bird or bat flies. This type of design has several advantages over traditional propeller-based drones.
In this article, we’ll take a closer look at drones without propellers that don’t use propellers and how they stay in the air. We will also look at the advantages and disadvantages of propeller-less drones. So without further ado, let’s get started!
Table des matières
Mechanism of Drone Propellers
We’ve all seen how a helicopter’s blades work. The spinning of the blades creates lift which, in turn, keeps the helicopter in the air. Drones work on a similar principle. The propellers on a drone rotate to create thrust, which lifts the drone off the ground.
However, there are some key differences between how a helicopter’s blades and a drone’s propellers work. First, helicopter blades are attached to a central shaft that runs through the helicopter's center. The blades spin around this shaft.
On the other hand, drones have their propellers mounted on arms extending out from the drone's main body. This design allows drones to have more than two propellers. In fact, most drones have four propellers.
The second key difference is in the way that the blades spin. On a helicopter, the blades spin in opposite directions to cancel out the torque from the engine. This prevents the helicopter from spinning uncontrollably.
Drones also have their propellers spinning in opposite directions but for a different reason. This design ensures that the thrust from each propeller cancels out the thrust from the other propellers. This makes it easier for the drone to fly in a straight line.
Drones that can Fly without Propellers
There are two types of drones that don’t need propellers to stay in the air. The first type is the impeller drone, and the second type is the bladeless drone.
Let's take a closer look at each type of drone.
Drones known as impeller drones generate lift using an impeller rather than propellers. An impeller is a rotating fan-like device used to produce airflow. The lift produced by this airflow is then utilized to maintain the drone in the air.
Although impeller drones are still in the development stage, they are already commercially available. Imello, a firm, has created a prototype impeller drone that can fly for up to 15 minutes.
Impeller drones have the primary benefit of being significantly quieter than drones with propellers. This is due to the absence of any moving parts. The only thing that moves is the air it pushes, and the battery power the impeller.
Impeller drones also have the benefit of being safer than drones with propellers as a propulsion system. This is because there aren't any rotating blades that could hurt people.
Impeller drones' main drawback is that they are not yet widely available in commerce. This indicates that they are still developing and could not be trustworthy.
Impeller drones also have the drawback of not being as energy-efficient as propeller-based drones. This is due to the fact that they must exert more force to spin the impeller.
The Bladeless Drone has four bladeless propellers: the main two for propulsion and the other two for stability. The main propellers are powered by an electric motor, while the others are passive and provide resistance to movement, keeping the drone stable in the air.
It also has four main air intake valves to bring air into the central impeller. This impeller then pushes the air out through the exhaust, providing lift for the drone.
The bladeless design of this drone makes it very quiet in operation and eliminates any possible injuries that propellers could cause. This drone also has a sleek design, making it more aerodynamic and, therefore, more efficient in energy consumption.
Although this drone concept won an award and was covered by many media outlets, it is not yet commercially available.
Does the Material and Design of Propellers Matter?
The material, design, and even length of the propeller blades affect how well a drone flies. In general, longer and wider propellers are more efficient than shorter and narrower propellers. This is because they can move more air per rotation.
The material of the propeller also matters. Carbon fiber propellers are the most popular type of propeller because they are lightweight and strong. However, wooden propellers are also used because they are cheaper and easier to produce.
The design of the propeller also affects how well a drone flies. The most common type of propeller is the four-blade propeller. This type of propeller is more efficient than two-blade or three-blade propellers.
For example, you may have noticed that some drones have two sets of propellers. This is because they have four-blade propellers on each side. This configuration is more efficient than having two-blade or three-blade propellers on each side.
Drawbacks of Drones Not Having Propellers
Even though there are some advantages to drones not having propellers, there are also some disadvantages. The main disadvantage is that they are not as efficient as propeller-based drones.
This is because they have to use more power to stay in the air. For example, bladeless drones have to use a lot of power to blow air downwards. This makes them very energy-intensive and can only stay in the air for a short time.
Another disadvantage of drones without propellers is that the amount of power that would be needed to get the drone off the ground would be huge, just like the ducted fan drones, which are not very practical.
This is why most drones still have propellers. Propeller-based drones are more efficient and can stay in the air for longer periods of time. However, there are some advantages to drones without propellers. Drones without propellers are quieter and safer than propeller-based drones.
So, it really depends on what you want to use the drone for. A propeller-based drone is the best choice if you need a drone that can stay in the air for a long time. However, if you need a quiet and safe drone, then a drone without propellers is the best choice.
Can a Quadcopter Fly with only 3 propellers?
A quadcopter is a type of drone that has four propellers. These propellers are arranged in two pairs, with each pair being opposite of the other. This configuration is what gives a quadcopter its lift and stability.
So, can a quadcopter fly with only three propellers? The answer is yes. In many cases, a quadcopter drone can fly on only 3 propellers. However, there are some disadvantages to flying a quadcopter with only three propellers.
The main disadvantage is that it is less stable. This is because the quadcopter will not have the same level of lift and stability as it would with four propellers.
Another disadvantage is that it will be less efficient. This is because the quadcopter will have to work harder to stay in the air.
Lastly, it is important to note that flying a quadcopter with only three propellers is not recommended. This is because it can be dangerous. If one of the propellers fails, the quadcopter could lose control and crash.
So, while a quadcopter can technically fly on only three propellers, it is not recommended. It is much better to use all four propellers to ensure that the quadcopter is stable and efficient.
Can a Drone Fly on Only one Propeller?
So we know that a drone can fly on only three propellers, but what about only one? Can a drone fly on only one propeller? The answer is yes. In some cases, a drone can fly on only one propeller.
Well, one weird-looking drone that was developed at the Institute for Dynamics Systems and Control at ETH Zurich can actually do that. The drone is called the “monospinner,” and it has only one propeller.
The monospinner is a proof-of-concept drone, and it is not very practical. However, it does show that a drone can fly on only one propeller. The monospinner works by having the propeller rotate at a very high speed. This causes the air to flow over the drone in such a way that it creates lift.
So, while a drone can technically fly on only one propeller, it is not very practical. It is much better to use multiple propellers to ensure that the drone is stable and efficient.
If you're looking for an efficient drone that can stay in the air for long periods, then a propeller-based drone is the best choice. However, if you need a quiet and safe drone, then a drone without propellers is the best choice. While a quadcopter can technically fly on only three propellers, it is not recommended.
It is much better to use all four propellers to ensure that the quadcopter is stable and efficient. While a drone can technically fly on only one propeller, it is not very practical. It is much better to use multiple propellers to ensure that the drone is stable and efficient.
In this article, we have answered the question: can drones fly without propellers? We have also looked at the advantages and disadvantages of flying drones without propellers. We hope that this article has been helpful. Thank you for reading!